Der Nazi-Diktator und Italiens Ober-Faschist: Der Historiker Christian Goeschel deutet die "Achse Rom-Berlin" als Inszenierung. Benito Mussolini und Adolf Hitler – die Verbündeten im Zweiten Weltkrieg brachten unvorstellbares Leid und Tod über die Völker der Welt. Mussolini war in den. Hitler, Mussolini und der Untergang des italienischen Faschismus. Aus dem Englischen von Karl Römer.
Geostrategisch standen sich Italien und Deutschland kaum im WegBenito Mussolini war für Adolf Hitler ein strahlendes Vorbild. Und nicht nur für ihn: Auch viele national gesinnte Intellektuelle begeisterten sich. Adolf Hitler und Benito Mussolini während des Besuchs des italienischen Diktators in Deutschland (Aufnahme wahrscheinlich von ). Hitler, Mussolini und der Untergang des italienischen Faschismus. Aus dem Englischen von Karl Römer.
Hitler Mussolini Subcategories VideoHitler, Mussolini And Goering In Germany (1930-1939) Class, State and Counter-Revolution, Italy —Westport Polizeireport. Vor allem aber diente es zur Rechtfertigung von Kriegsverbrechen an den ehemaligen Bündnispartnern: Bargeld Englisch, nachdem Viktor Gefallene Engel III. Auch seine Offensive gegen die Briten in Nordafrika gelingt nicht. MünchenS. Benito Mussolini und Adolf Hitler – die Verbündeten im Zweiten Weltkrieg brachten unvorstellbares Leid und Tod über die Völker der Welt. Mussolini war in den. Am Anfang segelte Hitler im Windschatten Mussolinis, er bewunderte ihn und versuchte, ihn nachzuahmen. Am Ende war es Mussolini, der zu Hitler aufblickte und. Der Nazi-Diktator und Italiens Ober-Faschist: Der Historiker Christian Goeschel deutet die "Achse Rom-Berlin" als Inszenierung. Adolf Hitler und Benito Mussolini während des Besuchs des italienischen Diktators in Deutschland (Aufnahme wahrscheinlich von ).
Max Homematic Produkte die Hitler Mussolini hier auflisten bekommen Hitler Mussolini bei Amazon. - Benito Mussolini und Adolf Hitler auf einer Aufnahme von 1942.Ein Beitrag zum Selbstverständnis und zur Politik Henriette Engel Gruppen und Verbänden der deutschen Rechten.
Mike Singer: Mit Neugier und Lampenfieber am Hitler Mussolini 9. - MDR ZeitreiseSeit Januar John Hawkes auf Anregung Mussolinis die Zeitschrift Gerarchia bis redigiert von Kuchenne Rewolucje Sezon 17 Sarfattidie dem Faschismus einen verbindlichen intellektuellen Überbau verschaffen sollte.
Das imponierte dem Deutschen. Er zeigte sich beeindruckt von den gigantischen Militärparaden und den pompösen Reden Mussolinis, denen die Massen begeistert lauschten.
Es war offensichtlich — der "Duce" hatte sein Volk im Griff, gab sich als weltmännischer Staatsmann und imperialer Feldherr. Mussolini hingegen war zu diesem Zeitpunkt noch nicht sehr von Hitler angetan.
Er wollte keine Verpflichtungen eingehen und sah Italien im europäischen Mächtepoker eher als "Zünglein an der Waage". Ihm schwebte eine Rolle als Vermittler zwischen England, Frankreich und dem aufstrebenden, nationalsozialistischen Deutschland vor.
Noch war Hitler für Mussolini keine Konkurrenz, aber das sollte sich bald ändern. Im Gegensatz zum Deutschen Reich war Italien das strukturell unterlegene, das archaischere Land.
Die Modernisierung fand vor allem im Norden statt, im Dreistädte-Eck Turin, Mailand und Genua. Der Süden galt als rückständig und arm.
Doch diese Strukturschwäche hielt Mussolini nicht davon ab, seine imperialen Ziele im Mittelmeerraum und Afrika zu verfolgen. Der "Duce" träumte von einem neuen Imperium, das bis an den Indischen Ozean grenzen sollte.
Doch Mussolini hatte sich verkalkuliert: So leicht waren die Äthiopier nicht zu besiegen, der Krieg kostete viel mehr Ressourcen und Menschenleben als erwartet.
Das war für Hitler der willkommene Zeitpunkt, Mussolinis faschistisches Italien endlich enger an sich zu binden. He made sure to emphasise on Physical Education to maintain the children's health fitness.
Children were taught History from the Nazi's perspective, such as the unfairness or the TOV and the glory of the German people. Mainly, they were taught to believe that the communists and Jews were bad.
Biology lessons taught German pupils to divide the human races into two groups, namely superior and inferior. Geography lessons advised the pupils why the lands that were formerly Germany's had to be retaken.
Mussolini took a particular interest in the education system of Italy as the children were the Fascists of the future. Mussolini had the same approach as Hitler.
Stalin, however, changed the education system of his country in a different way. Education was at the heart of Soviet attempts to create a new society.
He gave riority to the peasant and the working class. This extreme child centred system failed and the country returned to the more traditional, organised, disciplined mode of education.
There are a lot of similarities between Hitler and Stalin, and between Hitler and Mussolini. However there are a lot less similarities between Stalin and Mussolini.
Even though Stalin and Hitler despised and envied each other, the two leaders were similar in many ways.
Both rose to the highest positions in their country and there were three main reasons they were able to do that. Hitler and Stalin both were skilled sers 0T propaganda ana tney Dotn wanted to make tnelr countrles tne superlor power of the world and both these tyrants were well versed at propaganda; they used words to twist and manipulate the minds of the citizens into believing that what they were saying was the truth.
They both wanted to restore their countries' power as both their countries were still trying to recover from the loss of World War l.
Mussolini, on the other hand is not known for his cunning speeches. However he is very similar to Hitler.
He obtained power by using the Black Shirts SA and SS which is similar to Hitler, a group of fascist thugs who did his dirty work. When he obtained power he appealed to the conservative party by promoting big business which is similar to Hitler, but different to Stalin, both Mussolini and Hitler presented themselves as alternatives to Communism.
He also made an agreement with the Pope and Hitler did called the Concordat, called the Lateran agreement that made the Vatican an independent state, thereby creating strong Catholic support for him.
Stalin, Hitler and Mussolini had a lot of differences for examples: Mussolini was different from Hitler in the sense that Mussolini didn't kill Jews for the Holocaust.
Although Stalin and Hitler both are very similar, they both were responsible for deaths of millions of people, they were responsible for the Holocaust in which millions of died or were sent to concentration camps.
They were both different as Hitler and Mussolini were both trying to introduce a form of society without training or belief but which will help them preserve their power.
In , the Italian state had brought in a series of liberal reforms in Libya that allowed education in Arabic and Berber and allowed for the possibility that the Libyans might become Italian citizens.
As for overall strategy, it is necessary to create a significant and clear separation between the controlled population and the rebel formations.
I do not hide the significance and seriousness of this measure, which might be the ruin of the subdued population But now the course has been set, and we must carry it out to the end, even if the entire population of Cyrenaica must perish.
On 3 January , Mussolini told the diplomat Baron Pompei Aloisi that the French in Tunisia had made an "appalling blunder" by permitting sex between the French and the Tunisians, which he predicted would lead to the French degenerating into a nation of " half-castes ", and to prevent the same thing happening to the Italians gave orders to Marshal Badoglio that miscegenation be made a crime in Libya.
Mussolini launched several public construction programs and government initiatives throughout Italy to combat economic setbacks or unemployment levels.
His earliest and one of the best known was the Battle for Wheat , by which 5, new farms were established and five new agricultural towns among them Littoria and Sabaudia on land reclaimed by draining the Pontine Marshes.
In Sardinia , a model agricultural town was founded and named Mussolinia , but has long since been renamed Arborea. This town was the first of what Mussolini hoped would have been thousands of new agricultural settlements across the country.
The Battle for Wheat diverted valuable resources to wheat production away from other more economically viable crops.
Landowners grew wheat on unsuitable soil using all the advances of modern science, and although the wheat harvest increased, prices rose, consumption fell and high tariffs were imposed.
Mussolini also initiated the " Battle for Land ", a policy based on land reclamation outlined in The initiative had a mixed success; while projects such as the draining of the Pontine Marsh in for agriculture were good for propaganda purposes, provided work for the unemployed and allowed for great land owners to control subsidies, other areas in the Battle for Land were not very successful.
This program was inconsistent with the Battle for Wheat small plots of land were inappropriately allocated for large-scale wheat production , and the Pontine Marsh was lost during World War II.
Fewer than 10, peasants resettled on the redistributed land, and peasant poverty remained high. The Battle for Land initiative was abandoned in In , in " The Doctrine of Fascism " he wrote, "The so-called crisis can only be settled by State action and within the orbit of the State.
Even Rachele Mussolini donated her wedding ring. The collected gold was melted down and turned into gold bars, which were then distributed to the national banks.
Government control of business was part of Mussolini's policy planning. By , he claimed that three-quarters of Italian businesses were under state control.
Later that year, Mussolini issued several edicts to further control the economy, e. In , he imposed price controls.
In , Mussolini proposed the theory of economic socialization. Mussolini was keen to take the credit for major public works in Italy, particularly the railway system.
The difference between the Italian railway service in , and and that which obtained during the first year of the Mussolini regime was almost beyond belief.
The cars were clean, the employees were snappy and courteous, and trains arrived at and left the stations on time — not fifteen minutes late, and not five minutes late; but on the minute.
In fact, the improvement in Italy's dire post-war railway system had begun before Mussolini took power.
Bergen Evans wrote in The author was employed as a courier by the Franco-Belgique Tours Company in the summer of , the height of Mussolini's heyday, when a fascist guard rode on every train, and is willing to make an affidavit to the effect that most Italian trains on which he travelled were not on schedule—or near it.
There must be thousands who can support this attestation. It's a trifle, but it's worth nailing down. George Seldes wrote in that although the express trains carrying tourists generally—though not always—ran on schedule, the same was not true for the smaller lines, where delays were frequent,  while Ruth Ben-Ghiat has said that "they improved the lines that had a political meaning to them".
Mussolini's foremost priority was the subjugation of the minds of the Italian people through the use of propaganda.
The regime promoted a lavish cult of personality centered on the figure of Mussolini. He pretended to incarnate the new fascist Übermensch , promoting an aesthetic of exasperated Machismo that attributed to him quasi-divine capacities.
Sometimes he held as many as seven departments simultaneously, as well as the premiership. He was also head of the all-powerful Fascist Party and the armed local fascist militia, the MVSN or "Blackshirts", who terrorized incipient resistance in the cities and provinces.
He would later form the OVRA , an institutionalized secret police that carried official state support. In this way he succeeded in keeping power in his own hands and preventing the emergence of any rival.
Mussolini also portrayed himself as a valiant sportsman and a skilled musician. All teachers in schools and universities had to swear an oath to defend the fascist regime.
Newspaper editors were all personally chosen by Mussolini, and only those in possession of a certificate of approval from the Fascist Party could practice journalism.
These certificates were issued in secret; Mussolini thus skillfully created the illusion of a "free press". The trade unions were also deprived of any independence and were integrated into what was called the "corporative" system.
The aim, inspired by medieval guilds and never completely achieved, was to place all Italians in various professional organizations or corporations , all under clandestine governmental control.
Large sums of money were spent on highly visible public works and on international prestige projects. These included as the Blue Riband ocean liner SS Rex ; setting aeronautical records with the world's fastest seaplane , the Macchi M.
The principles of the doctrine of Fascism were laid down in an article by eminent philosopher Giovanni Gentile and Mussolini himself that appeared in in the Enciclopedia Italiana.
Mussolini always portrayed himself as an intellectual, and some historians agree. Nationalists in the years after World War I thought of themselves as combating the liberal and domineering institutions created by cabinets —such as those of Giovanni Giolitti , including traditional schooling.
Futurism , a revolutionary cultural movement which would serve as a catalyst for Fascism, argued for "a school for physical courage and patriotism", as expressed by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti in Marinetti expressed his disdain for "the by now prehistoric and troglodyte Ancient Greek and Latin courses", arguing for their replacement with exercise modelled on those of the Arditi soldiers "[learning] to advance on hands and knees in front of razing machine gun fire; to wait open-eyed for a crossbeam to move sideways over their heads etc.
It was in those years that the first Fascist youth wings were formed: Avanguardia Giovanile Fascista Fascist Youth Vanguards in , and Gruppi Universitari Fascisti Fascist University Groups in After the March on Rome that brought Mussolini to power, the Fascists started considering ways to politicize Italian society, with an accent on education.
Mussolini assigned former ardito and deputy-secretary for Education Renato Ricci the task of "reorganizing the youth from a moral and physical point of view.
The Opera Nazionale Balilla was created through Mussolini's decree of 3 April , and was led by Ricci for the following eleven years.
It included children between the ages of 8 and 18, grouped as the Balilla and the Avanguardisti. According to Mussolini: "Fascist education is moral, physical, social, and military: it aims to create a complete and harmoniously developed human, a fascist one according to our views".
Mussolini structured this process taking in view the emotional side of childhood: "Childhood and adolescence alike The truth we aim to teach them should appeal foremost to their fantasy, to their hearts, and only then to their minds".
The "educational value set through action and example" was to replace the established approaches. Fascism opposed its version of idealism to prevalent rationalism , and used the Opera Nazionale Balilla to circumvent educational tradition by imposing the collective and hierarchy, as well as Mussolini's own personality cult.
Another important constituent of the Fascist cultural policy was Roman Catholicism. In , a concordat with the Vatican was signed, ending decades of struggle between the Italian state and the Papacy that dated back to the takeover of the Papal States by the House of Savoy during the unification of Italy.
The Lateran treaties , by which the Italian state was at last recognized by the Roman Catholic Church, and the independence of Vatican City was recognized by the Italian state, were so much appreciated by the ecclesiastic hierarchy that Pope Pius XI acclaimed Mussolini as "the Man of Providence".
The treaty included a legal provision whereby the Italian government would protect the honor and dignity of the Pope by prosecuting offenders.
After , Mussolini, with his anti-Communist doctrines, convinced many Catholics to actively support him. In foreign policy, Mussolini was pragmatic and opportunistic.
At the center of his vision lay the dream to forge a new Roman Empire in Africa and the Balkans , vindicating the so-called " mutilated victory " of imposed by the "plutodemocracies" Britain and France that betrayed the Treaty of London and usurped the supposed "natural right" of Italy to achieve supremacy in the Mediterranean basin.
In the s, Italy's foreign policy was based on the traditional idea of Italy maintaining "equidistant" stance from all the major powers in order to exercise "determinant weight", which by whatever power Italy chose to align with would decisively change the balance of power in Europe, and the price of such an alignment would be support for Italian ambitions in Europe and Africa.
In his early years in power, Mussolini operated as a pragmatic statesman, trying to achieve some advantages, but never at the risk of war with Britain and France.
An exception was the bombardment and occupation of Corfu in , following an incident in which Italian military personnel charged by the League of Nations to settle a boundary dispute between Greece and Albania were assassinated by bandits; the nationality of the bandits remains unclear.
At the time of the Corfu incident, Mussolini was prepared to go to war with Britain, and only desperate pleading by the Italian Navy leadership, who argued that the Italian Navy was no match for the British Royal Navy, persuaded Mussolini to accept a diplomatic solution.
In , Mussolini ordered his Army General Staff to begin planning for aggression against France and Yugoslavia.
After Adolf Hitler came into power, threatening Italian interests in Austria and the Danube basin, Mussolini proposed the Four Power Pact with Britain, France and Germany in When the Austrian 'austro-fascist' Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss with dictatorial power was assassinated on 25 July by National-Socialist supporters, Mussolini even threatened Germany with war in the event of a German invasion of Austria.
Mussolini for a period of time continued strictly opposing any German attempt to obtain Anschluss and promoted the ephemeral Stresa Front against Germany in Despite Mussolini's imprisonment for opposing the Italo-Turkish War in Africa as "nationalist delirium tremens " and "a miserable war of conquest",  after the Abyssinia Crisis of —, in the Second Italo—Ethiopian War Italy invaded Ethiopia following border incidents occasioned by Italian inclusions over the vaguely drawn border between Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland.
Historians are still divided about the reasons for the attack on Ethiopia in Some Italian historians such as Franco Catalano and Giorgio Rochat argue that the invasion was an act of social imperialism , contending that the Great Depression had badly damaged Mussolini's prestige, and that he needed a foreign war to distract public opinion.
Emperor Haile Selassie was forced to flee the country, with Italy entering the capital city, Addis Ababa to proclaim an empire by May , making Ethiopia part of Italian East Africa.
Confident of having been given free hand by French Premier Pierre Laval , and certain that the British and French would be forgiving because of his opposition to Hitler's revisionism within the Stresa front, Mussolini received with disdain the League of Nations' economic sanctions imposed on Italy by initiative of London and Paris.
The international mood was now against colonialist expansion and Italy's actions were condemned. Furthermore, Italy was criticized for its use of mustard gas and phosgene against its enemies and also for its zero tolerance approach to enemy guerrillas, authorized by Mussolini.
Without a policy of ten eyes to one, we cannot heal this wound in good time". The sanctions against Italy were used by Mussolini as a pretext for an alliance with Germany.
In January , Mussolini told the German Ambassador Ulrich von Hassell that: "If Austria were in practice to become a German satellite, he would have no objection".
On 11 July , an Austro-German treaty was signed under which Austria declared itself to be a "German state" whose foreign policy would always be aligned with Berlin, and allowed for pro-Nazis to enter the Austrian cabinet.
The Foreign Office understood that it was the Spanish Civil War that was pulling Rome and Berlin closer together, and believed if Mussolini could be persuaded to disengage from Spain, then he would return to the Allied camp.
To get Mussolini out of Spain, the British were prepared to pay such prices such as recognising King Victor Emmanuel III as Emperor of Ethiopia.
The American historian Barry Sullivan wrote that both the British and the French very much wanted a rapprochement with Italy to undo the damage caused by the League of Nations sanctions, and that "Mussolini chose to ally with Hitler, rather than being forced…" .
Reflecting the new pro-German foreign policy on 25 October , Mussolini agreed to form a Rome-Berlin Axis , sanctioned by a cooperation agreement with Nazi Germany and signed in Berlin.
Furthermore, the conquest of Ethiopia cost the lives of 12, Italians and another 4, to 5, Libyans, Eritreans, and Somalis fighting in Italian service.
From through , Mussolini provided huge amounts of military support to the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War. This active intervention on the side of Franco further distanced Italy from France and Britain.
As a result, Mussolini's relationship with Adolf Hitler became closer, and he chose to accept the German annexation of Austria in , followed by the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia in In May , during Hitler's visit to Italy, Mussolini told the Führer that Italy and France were deadly enemies fighting on "opposite sides of the barricade" concerning the Spanish Civil War, and the Stresa Front was "dead and buried".
The Axis agreement with Germany was strengthened by signing the Pact of Steel on 22 May , that bound together Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in a full military alliance.
Members of TIGR , a Slovene anti-fascist group, plotted to kill Mussolini in Kobarid in , but their attempt was unsuccessful.
By the late s, Mussolini's obsession with demography led him to conclude that Britain and France were finished as powers, and that it was Germany and Italy who were destined to rule Europe if for no other reason than their demographic strength.
Mussolini believed that France was a "weak and old" nation as the French weekly death rate exceeded the birthrate by 2,, and he had no interest in an alliance with France.
Such was the extent of Mussolini's belief that it was Italy's destino to rule the Mediterranean because of Italy's high birth rate that he neglected much of the serious planning and preparations necessary for a war with the Western powers.
Count Galeazzo Ciano , Mussolini's son-in-law and foreign minister, summed up the dictator's foreign policy objectives regarding France in an entry of his diary dated 8 November Djibouti would have to be ruled in common with France; "Tunisia, with a more or less similar regime; Corsica , Italian and never Frenchified and therefore under our direct control, the border at the river Var.
In January , the British prime minister, Neville Chamberlain , visited Rome, during which visit Mussolini learned that though Britain very much wanted better relations with Italy, and was prepared to make concessions, it would not sever all ties with France for the sake of an improved Anglo-Italian relationship.
The bars of this prison are Corsica, Tunisia, Malta, Cyprus: the sentinels of this prison are Gibraltar and Suez". The new course was not without its critics.
On 21 March during a meeting of the Fascist Grand Council, Italo Balbo accused Mussolini of "licking Hitler's boots", blasted the Duce's pro-German foreign policy as leading Italy to disaster and noted that the "opening to Britain" still existed and it was not inevitable that Italy had to ally with Germany.
Italy defeated Albania within just five days, forcing king Zog to flee and setting up a period of Albania under Italy.
Until May , the Axis had not been entirely official, but during that month the Pact of Steel treaty was signed outlining the " friendship and alliance" between Germany and Italy, signed by each of its foreign ministers.
Italy's King Victor Emanuel III was also wary of the pact, favoring the more traditional Italian allies like France, and fearful of the implications of an offensive military alliance, which in effect meant surrendering control over questions of war and peace to Hitler.
Hitler was intent on invading Poland, though Ciano warned this would likely lead to war with the Allies. Hitler dismissed Ciano's comment, predicting instead that Britain and the other Western countries would back down, and he suggested that Italy should invade Yugoslavia.
Most significantly, Victor Emmanuel had demanded neutrality in the dispute. As World War II began, Ciano and Viscount Halifax were holding secret phone conversations.
The British wanted Italy on their side against Germany as it had been in World War I. In September , France swung to the opposite extreme, offering to discuss issues with Italy, but as the French were unwilling to discuss Corsica , Nice and Savoy , Mussolini did not answer.
Convinced that the war would soon be over, with a German victory looking likely at that point, Mussolini decided to enter the war on the Axis side.
Accordingly, Italy declared war on Britain and France on 10 June Mussolini regarded the war against Britain and France as a life-or-death struggle between opposing ideologies—fascism and the "plutocratic and reactionary democracies of the west"—describing the war as "the struggle of the fertile and young people against the sterile people moving to the sunset; it is the struggle between two centuries and two ideas", and as a "logical development of our Revolution".
Italy joined the Germans in the Battle of France , fighting the fortified Alpine Line at the border. Just eleven days later, France and Germany signed an armistice.
Included in Italian-controlled France were most of Nice and other southeastern counties. In September , the Italian Tenth Army was commanded by General Rodolfo Graziani and crossed from Italian Libya into Egypt , where British forces were located; this would become the Western Desert Campaign.
Advances were successful, but the Italians stopped at Sidi Barrani waiting for logistic supplies to catch up. On 24 October , Mussolini sent the Italian Air Corps to Belgium, where it took part in the Blitz until January After initial success, this backfired as the Greek counterattack proved relentless, resulting in Italy losing one-quarter of Albania.
Events in Africa had changed by early as Operation Compass had forced the Italians back into Libya , causing high losses in the Italian Army.
Despite putting up some resistance, they were overwhelmed at the Battle of Keren , and the Italian defense started to crumble with a final defeat in the Battle of Gondar.
When addressing the Italian public on the events, Mussolini was completely open about the situation, saying "We call bread bread and wine wine, and when the enemy wins a battle it is useless and ridiculous to seek, as the English do in their incomparable hypocrisy, to deny or diminish it.
In danger of losing the control of all Italian possessions in North Africa, Germany finally sent the Afrika Korps to support Italy. Meanwhile, Operation Marita took place in Yugoslavia to end the Greco-Italian War , resulting in an Axis victory and the Occupation of Greece by Italy and Germany.
General Mario Robotti , Commander of the Italian 11th division in Slovenia and Croatia, issued an order in line with a directive received from Mussolini in June "I would not be opposed to all sic Slovenes being imprisoned and replaced by Italians.
In other words, we should take steps to ensure that political and ethnic frontiers coincide". Mussolini first learned of Operation Barbarossa after the invasion of the Soviet Union had begun on 22 June , and was not asked by Hitler to involve himself.
A night telephone call from Ribbentrop. He is overjoyed about the Japanese attack on America. He is so happy about it that I am happy with him, though I am not too sure about the final advantages of what has happened.
One thing is now certain, that America will enter the conflict and that the conflict will be so long that she will be able to realize all her potential forces.
This morning I told this to the King who had been pleased about the event. He ended by admitting that, in the long run, I may be right.
Mussolini was happy, too. For a long time he has favored a definite clarification of relations between America and the Axis.
By early , Italy's military position had become untenable. After the defeat at El Alamein at the end of , the Axis troops had to retreat to where they were finally defeated in the Tunisia Campaign in early Italy suffered major setbacks on the Eastern Front as well.
The Allied invasion of Sicily brought the war to the nation's very doorstep. Factories all over Italy were brought to a virtual standstill because raw materials , such as coal and oil, were lacking.
Additionally, there was a chronic shortage of food, and what food was available was being sold at nearly confiscatory prices. Mussolini's once-ubiquitous propaganda machine lost its grip on the people; a large number of Italians turned to Vatican Radio or Radio London for more accurate news coverage.
Discontent came to a head in March with a wave of labor strikes in the industrial north—the first large-scale strikes since The German presence in Italy had sharply turned public opinion against Mussolini; for example, when the Allies invaded Sicily, the majority of the public there welcomed them as liberators.
Earlier in April , Mussolini had persuaded Hitler to make a separate peace with Stalin and send German troops to the west to guard against an expected Allied invasion of Italy.
Mussolini feared that with the losses in Tunisia and North Africa, the next logical step for Allied General Dwight Eisenhower 's armies would be to come across the Mediterranean and attack the Italian peninsula.
Within a few days of the Allied landings on Sicily in July , it was obvious Mussolini's army was on the brink of collapse. This led Hitler to summon Mussolini to a meeting in Feltre on 19 July By this time, Mussolini was so shaken from stress that he could no longer stand Hitler's boasting.
His mood darkened further when that same day, the Allies bombed Rome —the first time that city had ever been the target of enemy bombing.
By this point, some prominent members of Mussolini's government had turned against him. Among them were Grandi and Ciano.
Several of his colleagues were close to revolt, and Mussolini was forced to summon the Grand Council on 24 July This was the first time the body had met since the start of the war.
When he announced that the Germans were thinking of evacuating the south, Grandi launched a blistering attack on him. This motion carried by a 19—8 margin.
He did, however, ask Grandi to consider the possibility that this motion would spell the end of Fascism.
Despite this sharp rebuke, Mussolini showed up for work the next day as usual. He allegedly viewed the Grand Council as merely an advisory body and did not think the vote would have any substantive effect.
When Mussolini tried to tell the king about the meeting, Victor Emmanuel cut him off and formally dismissed him from office, replacing him with Marshal Pietro Badoglio.
People rejoiced because they believed that the end of Mussolini also meant the end of the war. In an effort to conceal his location from the Germans, Mussolini was moved around before being imprisoned at Campo Imperatore , a mountain resort in Abruzzo where he was completely isolated.
Badoglio kept up the appearance of loyalty to Germany, and announced that Italy would continue fighting on the side of the Axis.
However, he dissolved the Fascist Party two days after taking over and began negotiating an Armistice with the Allies, which was signed on 3 September Its announcement five days later threw Italy into chaos; German troops rushed in to take over Italy in Operation Achse.
As the Germans approached Rome, Badoglio and the king fled Rome, leaving the Italian Army without orders. The Badoglio government held a political truce with the leftist partisans for the sake of Italy and to rid the land of the Nazis.
Only two months after Mussolini had been dismissed and arrested, he was rescued from his prison at the Hotel Campo Imperatore in the Gran Sasso raid on 12 September by a special Fallschirmjäger paratroopers unit and Waffen-SS commandos led by Major Otto-Harald Mors ; Otto Skorzeny was also present.
Three days following his rescue in the Gran Sasso raid, Mussolini was taken to Germany for a meeting with Hitler in Rastenburg at his East Prussian headquarters.
Despite public professions of support, Hitler was clearly shocked by Mussolini's disheveled and haggard appearance as well as his unwillingness to go after the men in Rome who overthrew him.
Mussolini's new regime faced numerous territorial losses: in addition to losing the Italian lands held by the Allies and Badoglio's government, the provinces of Bolzano , Belluno and Trento were placed under German administration in the Operational Zone of the Alpine Foothills , while the provinces of Udine , Gorizia , Trieste , Pola now Pula , Fiume now Rijeka , and Ljubljana Lubiana in Italian were incorporated into the German Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral.
In addition, the German army occupied the Dalmatian provinces of Split Spalato and Kotor Cattaro , which were subsequently annexed by the Croatian fascist regime.
Italy's gains in Greece and Albania were also lost to Germany, with the exception of the Italian Aegean Islands , which remained nominally under RSI rule.
I am not here to renounce even a square meter of state territory. We will go back to war for this. And we will rebel against anyone for this.
Where the Italian flag flew, the Italian flag will return. And where it has not been lowered, now that I am here, no one will have it lowered.
I have said these things to the Führer. For about a year and a half, Mussolini lived in Gargnano on Lake Garda in Lombardy.
Although he insisted in public that he was in full control, he knew that he was merely a puppet ruler under the protection of his German liberators—for all intents and purposes, the Gauleiter of Lombardy.
He told one of his colleagues that being sent to a concentration camp was preferable to his puppet status. One of those executed was his son-in-law, Galeazzo Ciano.
As head of state and Minister of Foreign Affairs for the Italian Social Republic, Mussolini used much of his time to write his memoirs. Along with his autobiographical writings of , these writings would be combined and published by Da Capo Press as My Rise and Fall.
In an interview in January by Madeleine Mollier, a few months before he was captured and executed by Italian anti-fascist partisans, he stated flatly: "Seven years ago, I was an interesting person.
Now, I am little more than a corpse. Yes, madam, I am finished. My star has fallen. I have no fight left in me.
I work and I try, yet know that all is but a farce I await the end of the tragedy and—strangely detached from everything—I do not feel any more an actor.
I feel I am the last of spectators. Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci set out for Switzerland, intending to board a plane and escape to Spain.
During this time, Petacci's brother posed as a Spanish consul. They spent their last night in the house of the De Maria family. The next day, Mussolini and Petacci were both summarily shot, along with most of the members of their man train, primarily ministers and officials of the Italian Social Republic.
The shootings took place in the small village of Giulino di Mezzegra and were conducted by a partisan leader who used the nom de guerre Colonnello Valerio.
His real identity is unknown, but conventionally he is thought to have been Walter Audisio , who always claimed to have carried out the execution, though another partisan controversially alleged that Colonnello Valerio was Luigi Longo , subsequently a leading communist politician in post-war Italy.
The RSI only survived for another four days before Mussolini's defence minister, Rodolfo Graziani —the lone Italian marshal who remained loyal to Fascism after —surrendered its remains on 1 May.
On 29 April , the bodies of Mussolini, Petacci, and the other executed Fascists were loaded into a van and moved south to Milan. The piazza had been renamed "Piazza Quindici Martiri" Fifteen Martyrs' Square in honor of fifteen anti-Fascists recently executed there.
After being kicked and spat upon, the bodies were hung upside down from the roof of an Esso gas station. This was done both to discourage any Fascists from continuing the fight, and as an act of revenge for the hanging of many partisans in the same place by Axis authorities.
The corpse of the deposed leader was subject to ridicule and abuse. Fascist loyalist Achille Starace was captured and sentenced to death and then taken to the Piazzale Loreto and shown the body of Mussolini.
Starace, who once said of Mussolini "He is a god,"  saluted what was left of his leader just before he was shot.
The body of Starace was subsequently hung up next to that of Mussolini. After his death and the display of his corpse in Milan, Mussolini was buried in an unmarked grave in the Musocco cemetery, to the north of the city.
On Easter Sunday , his body was located and dug up by Domenico Leccisi and two other neo-Fascists. On the loose for months—and a cause of great anxiety to the new Italian democracy—Mussolini's body was finally "recaptured" in August, hidden in a small trunk at the Certosa di Pavia , just outside Milan.
Two Fransciscan brothers were subsequently charged with concealing the corpse, though it was discovered on further investigation that it had been constantly on the move.
Unsure what to do, the authorities held the remains in a kind of political limbo for ten years, before agreeing to allow them to be re-interred at Predappio in Romagna , his birthplace.
Adone Zoli , the then-current prime minister, contacted Donna Rachele , the dictator's widow, to tell her he was returning the remains, as he needed the support of the far-right in parliament, including Leccisi himself.
In Predappio, the dictator was buried in a crypt the only posthumous honor granted to Mussolini. His tomb is flanked by marble fasces , and a large idealized marble bust of him is above the tomb.
Mussolini's first wife was Ida Dalser , whom he married in Trento in The couple had a son the following year and named him Benito Albino Mussolini — In December , Mussolini married Rachele Guidi , who had been his mistress since Due to his upcoming political ascendency, the information about his first marriage was suppressed, and both his first wife and son were later persecuted.
Mussolini had several mistresses, among them Margherita Sarfatti and his final companion, Clara Petacci. Mussolini had many brief sexual encounters with female supporters, as reported by his biographer Nicholas Farrell.
Imprisonment may have been the cause of Mussolini's claustrophobia. In addition to his native Italian, Mussolini spoke English, accented but fluent French and questionable German his sense of pride meant he did not use a German interpreter.
This was notable at the Munich Conference, as no other national leader spoke anything other than their native language; Mussolini was described as effectively being the "chief interpreter" at the Conference.
Mussolini was raised by a devoutly Catholic mother  and an anti-clerical father. His father never attended. Mussolini became anti-clerical like his father.
As a young man, he "proclaimed himself to be an atheist  and several times tried to shock an audience by calling on God to strike him dead. He considered religion a disease of the psyche, and accused Christianity of promoting resignation and cowardice.
Media in category "Meetings of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini" The following 42 files are in this category, out of 42 total. Bundesarchiv Bild , Münchener Abkommen, Mussolini, Hitler, Daladier.
Bundesarchiv Bild , Berlin, Kundgebung mit Mussolini. Bundesarchiv Bild , Münchener Abkommen, Abreise Mussolinis. Bundesarchiv Bild , Münchener Abkommen, Ankunft Mussolini.
Bundesarchiv Bild H, Münchener Abkommen, Ankunft von Mussolini. Bundesarchiv Bild H, Münchener Abkommen, Ankunft Mussolinis. Bundesarchiv Bild H, Münchener Abkommen, Ankunft Mussolini, Hitler.
Bundesarchiv Bild H, Münchener Abkommen, Hitler und Mussolini. Bundesarchiv Bild H, Münchener Abkommen, Abreise Mussolini. Bundesarchiv Bild H, Münchener Abkommen, Abreise Mussolinis.
Bundesarchiv Bild R, Münchener Abkommen, Staatschefs.